Essential Petroleum Resources
Energy has become a grave global concern in the present free market environment strongly affecting the international economic climate and financial systems not to mention the environmental issues that comes along with its uses. Transportation uses fuel in liquid form and the entire world has come to rely heavily on this fast depleting commodity.
It is firmly believed that Petroleum is a product of incompletely decayed animal and plant material fossilized over the past 600 years and buried deep under very thick layers of rock. It is a highly flammable liquid principally consisting of hydrocarbons and traces of sulfurous and nitrogenous compounds, occurring naturally beneath the earth's surface in the form of crude oil.
The subterranean source of petroleum requires it to be extracted by means of wells. There is no definite way of deliberating whether or not petroleum is there under a particular location until an investigative well, or wildcat, has been dug.
The heterogeneous structure of petroleum is composed of hydrocarbon chains and owing to this it makes it possible to be taken to oil refineries to separate the hydrocarbon chains which are made possible by distillation. It is then treated by chemical processes for the extraction of the different petroleum products for use in a variety of purposes.
The commonest distillations being fuels as they are in great demand include: Gasoline (Petrol), Jet fuel, Kerosene, Diesel fuel (petro diesel), Ethane and other short-chain alkanes, Fuel oils, and Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Apart from these products there are other derivatives which are a result of certain types of hydrocarbons being mixed with non-hydrocarbons creating new products such as - Lubricants (that produces light machine oils, motor oils, and greases, adding viscosity stabilizers as required). Another product is Wax, which used in the food industry for packaging of frozen foods, among others. Alkenes (olefins) are another by product used for the manufacture of plastics or other compounds. Sulfur or Sulfuric acid is a useful industrial material that has many uses. Sulfuric acid is usually prepared as the acid precursor oleum that is a byproduct of the removal of sulfur from fuels. Then there's Asphalt, Bulk tar, Petroleum coke, used in specialty carbon products or as solid fuel. Aromatic petrochemicals to be used as precursors in other chemical production and Paraffin wax. All these items form the essential resources that are obtainable from petroleum and its by products.
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